|Regions of Georgia
THE FIRST EUROPEANS
Finding of the first European in Dmanisi gives evidence that Georgia was
located on a crossroads of migration routes and a man from Africa got to
Europe exactly via Georgia. After this discovery it is without any doubt
that Georgia is a motherland of the first European.
Short discription of Dmanisi District:
Location - 100 kilometers from the city in the south-west part. Area -
1190 km2. Population - 29868. Religion - Orthodox 36,7%, Muslim - 62,7%,
other - 0. 6%. Time zone: GMT 3.00h. Tel code - 8 260, electrical force
- 220 volts. Bordering country and districts: Armenia, Tetritskaro
District, Tsalka District and Ninotsmonda District. Climate - temperate.
The highest mountain - Trealeti. Number of villages - 57, rivers -
Khrami, Mashavera, Pinezauri, lakes - Pantiani, Iakulbo and Gomareti
five lakes. reservoirs. Minerals - basalt, granite, tuff, lime stone,
clay, peat, gold, silver and etc.
Motherland of the first Europeans
Nowadays Dmanisi attracts attention from the whole world. A great number
of diplomats, scientists, students, tourists from different countries
come here to see it. Why is it so interesting? Dmanisi as well whole
Kvemo Kartli region is rich with its history. Many archeological and
architectural monuments, dated back to Bronze Era, Antique Era and
Middle Ages, are discovered in this district. The most important is
Dmanisi Ancient Settlement, where after archeological investigation the
whole history of our country and all periods of pre-history were
discovered. The layers of Late-Bronze, Early-Iron, Antique eras and
Middle centuries were determined and a lot of archeological materials
were found. On the promontory formed by the confluence of the Mashavera
and Phinezauri Rivers was situated one of the most powerful town. It was
crossed by the main trade roads from East, Asia and West Europe.
Dmanisi Ancient Settlement is very unique. In the center of the
settlement deep in the layers under the buildings dated back to
centuries a great number of (presently extinguished) animals
(rhinoceros, elephant, giraffe, gigantic ostrich, tiger and etc.) and
Human bones (5 craniums, 4 mandibles and about 60 other parts) were
discovered. According to the sciences' definition Dmanisi Homo Erectus
belong to Homo Erasers and are 1,7-1,8 year-old. The first homos outside
Africa was discovered in Dmanisi. And it is already formulated the idea
that Dmanisi is the motherland of the first Europeans.
The maze of Birtvisi Canyon is located about 60 km, South-West of
Tbilisi, on the left bank of the river Algeti. An amazing natural
shelter was discovered by local Lord back in 8th or 9th century, where
he ordered to build an isolated hidden city which later became one of
the most protected fortress-cities in Eastern Georgian Kingdom. But in
1403, on his eights attempt, it was conquered by Tamerlane.
On this enjoyable trek, you will feel the incredibility of nature,
where in the labyrinth of the canyons and miraculous forest lay the
great secrets of an ancient civilization.
David Lordkipanidze, who won a Rolex Award in 2004 for his plans to
expand exploration of the earliest known settlement outside Africa, has
made more discoveries at the archaeological site underneath the medieval
village of Dmanisi, in southeast Georgia.
The latest discoveries – the 1.77-million-year-old skeletons of three
adults and a teenager – have legs and feet adapted for long-distance
walking and running, similar to those of modern humans, but have hands
and arms similar to those of our tree-dwelling ancestors. The ancient
Dmanisi inhabitants, who have some human features and some ape-like
features, share characteristics with both Homo erectus, originally
thought to be the first Homo species to migrate from Africa to Europe,
and Homo habilis, the oldest species with human attributes found in
Dr Lordkipanidze and his team of researchers reckon that the Dmanisi
individuals were 1.45- to 1.66-metre-tall meat-eaters who probably slept
in trees at night for safety.
The latest findings, which also raise questions about the evolution of
Homo sapiens and about migration out of Africa, were revealed in a major
article in Nature magazine in September 2007, written by Lordkipanidze
and his team of European and American researchers.
"Dmanisi is not only the oldest site outside Africa, but also the most
prolific – a treasure trove of prehistoric archaeology", says
Lordkipanidze, who is director of the Georgian National Museum in
Only 5 per cent of the 13,000-square-metre site at Dmanisi has been
excavated and, for much of the time since the archaeological work began
in earnest in 1991, it was protected only by a plastic tarpaulin roof.
Now, partly with the funding from his Rolex Award, Lordkipanidze and his
colleagues have had a dome built over the site to protect it from the
weather and from looting.